Tag Archives: Humanitarians

Summary: Digital Disaster Response to Philippine Typhoon

Update: How the UN Used Social Media in Response to Typhoon Pablo

The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) activated the Digital Humanitarian Network (DHN) on December 5th at 3pm Geneva time (9am New York). The activation request? To collect all relevant tweets about Typhoon Pablo posted on December 4th and 5th; identify pictures and videos of damage/flooding shared in those tweets; geo-locate, time-stamp and categorize this content. The UN requested that this database be shared with them by 5am Geneva time the following day. As per DHN protocol, the activation request was reviewed within an hour. The UN was informed that the request had been granted and that the DHN was formally activated at 4pm Geneva.

pablo_impact

The DHN is composed of several members who form Solution Teams when the network is activated. The purpose of Digital Humanitarians is to support humanitarian organizations in their disaster response efforts around the world. Given the nature of the UN’s request, both the Standby Volunteer Task Force (SBTF) and Humanity Road (HR) joined the Solution Team. HR focused on analyzing all tweets posted December 4th while the SBTF worked on tweets posted December 5th. Over 20,000 tweets were analyzed. As HR will have a blog post describing their efforts shortly (please check here), I will focus on the SBTF.

Geofeedia Pablo

The Task Force first used Geofeedia to identify all relevant pictures/videos that were already geo-tagged by users. About a dozen were identified in this manner. Meanwhile, the SBTF partnered with the Qatar Foundation Computing Research Institute’s (QCRI) Crisis Computing Team to collect all tweets posted on December 5th with the hashtags endorsed by the Philippine Government. QCRI ran algorithms on the dataset to remove (1) all retweets and (2) all tweets without links (URLs). Given the very short turn-around time requested by the UN, the SBTF & QCRI Teams elected to take a two-pronged approach in the hopes that one, at least, would be successful.

The first approach used  Crowdflower (CF), introduced here. Workers on Crowd-flower were asked to check each Tweet’s URL and determine whether it linked to a picture or video. The purpose was to filter out URLs that linked to news articles. CF workers were also asked to assess whether the tweets (or pictures/videos) provided sufficient geographic information for them to be mapped. This methodology worked for about 2/3 of all the tweets in the database. A review of lessons learned and how to use Crowdflower for disaster response will be posted in the future.

Pybossa Philippines

The second approach was made possible thanks to a partnership with PyBossa, a free, open-source crowdsourcing and micro-tasking platform. This effort is described here in more detail. While we are still reviewing the results of this approach, we expect that  this tool will become the standard for future activations of the Digital Humanitarian Network. I will thus continue working closely with the PyBossa team to set up a standby PyBossa platform ready-for-use at a moment’s notice so that Digital Humanitarians can be fully prepared for the next activation.

Now for the results of the activation. Within 10 hours, over 20,000 tweets were analyzed using a mix of methodologies. By 4.30am Geneva time, the combined efforts of HR and the SBTF resulted in a database of 138 highly annotated tweets. The following meta-data was collected for each tweet:

  • Media Type (Photo or Video)
  • Type of Damage (e.g., large-scale housing damage)
  • Analysis of Damage (e.g., 5 houses flooded, 1 damaged roof)
  • GPS coordinates (latitude/longitude)
  • Province
  • Region
  • Date
  • Link to Photo or Video

The vast majority of curated tweets had latitude and longitude coordinates. One SBTF volunteer (“Mapster”) created this map below to plot the data collected. Another Mapster created a similar map, which is available here.

Pablo Crisis Map Twitter Multimedia

The completed database was shared with UN OCHA at 4.55am Geneva time. Our humanitarian colleagues are now in the process of analyzing the data collected and writing up a final report, which they will share with OCHA Philippines today by 5pm Geneva time.

Needless to say, we all learned a lot thanks to the deployment of the Digital Humanitarian Network in the Philippines. This was the first time we were activated to carry out a task of this type. We are now actively reviewing our combined efforts with the concerted aim of streamlining our workflows and methodologies to make this type effort far easier and quicker to complete in the future. If you have suggestions and/or technologies that could facilitate this kind of digital humanitarian work, then please do get in touch either by posting your ideas in the comments section below or by sending me an email.

Lastly, but definitely most importantly, a big HUGE thanks to everyone who volunteered their time to support the UN’s disaster response efforts in the Philippines at such short notice! We want to publicly recognize everyone who came to the rescue, so here’s a list of volunteers who contributed their time (more to be added!). Without you, there would be no database to share with the UN, no learning, no innovating and no demonstration that digital volunteers can and do make a difference. Thank you for caring. Thank you for daring.

PeopleBrowsr: Next-Generation Social Media Analysis for Humanitarian Response?

As noted in this blog post on “Data Philanthropy for Humanitarian Response,” members of the Digital Humanitarian Network (DHNetwork) are still using manual methods for media monitoring. When the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) activated the Standby Volunteer Task Force (SBTF) to crisis map Libya last year, for example, SBTF volunteers manually monitored hundreds of Twitter handles, news sites for several weeks.

SBTF volunteers (Mapsters) do not have access to a smart microtasking platform that could have distributed the task in more efficient ways. Nor do they have access to even semi-automated tools for content monitoring and information retrieval. Instead, they used a Google Spreadsheet to list the sources they were manually monitoring and turned this spreadsheet into a sign-up sheet where each Mapster could sign on for 3-hour shifts every day. The SBTF is basically doing “crowd computing” using the equivalent of a typewriter.

Meanwhile, companies like Crimson Hexagon, NetBase, RecordedFuture and several others have each developed sophisticated ways to monitor social and/or mainstream media for various private sector applications such as monitoring brand perception. So my colleague Nazila kindly introduced me to her colleagues at PeopleBrowsr after reading my post on Data Philanthropy. Last week, Marc from PeopleBrowsr gave me a thorough tour of the platform. I was definitely impressed and am excited that Marc wants us to pilot the platform in support of the Digital Humanitarian Network. So what’s the big deal about PeopleBrowsr? To begin with, the platform has access to 1,000 days of social media data and over 3 terabytes of social data per month.

To put this in terms of information velocity, PeopleBrowsr receives 10,000 social media posts per second from a variety of sources including Twitter, Facebook, fora and blogs. On the latter, they monitor posts from over 40 million blogs including all of Tumblr, Posterious, Blogspot and every WordPress-hosted site. They also pull in content from YouTube and Flickr. (Click on the screenshots below to magnify them).

Lets search for the term “tsunami” on Twitter. (One could enter a complex query, e.g., and/or, not, etc., and also search using twitter handles, word or hashtag clouds, top URLs, videos, pictures, etc). PeopleBrowsr summarizes the result by Location and Community. Location simply refers to where those generating content referring to a tsunami are located. Of course, many Twitter users may tweet about an event without actually being eye-witness accounts (think of Diaspora groups, for example). While PeopleBrowsr doesn’t geo-tag the location of reports events, you can very easily and quickly identify which twitter users are tweeting the most about a given event and where they are located.

As for Community, PeopleBrowsr has  indexed millions of social media users and clustered them into different communities based on their profile/bio information. Given our interest in humanitarian response, we could create our own community of social media users from the humanitarian sector and limit our search to those users only. Communities can also be created based on hashtags. The result of the “tsunami” search is displayed below.

This result can be filtered further by gender, sentiment, number of twitter followers, urgent words (e.g., alert, help, asap), time period and location, for example. The platform can monitor and view posts in any language that is posted. In addition, PeopleBrowsr have their very own Kred score which quantifies the “credibility” of social media users. The scoring metrics for Kred scores is completely transparent and also community driven. “Kred is a transparent way to measure influence and outreach in social media. Kred generates unique scores for every domain of expertise. Regardless of follower count, a person is influential if their community is actively listening and engaging with their content.”

Using Kred, PeopleBrows can do influence analysis using Twitter across all languages. They’ve also added Facebook to Kred, but only as an opt in option.  PeopleBrowsr also has some great built-in and interactive data analytics tools. In addition, one can download a situation report in PDF and print that off if there’s a need to go offline.

What appeals to me the most is perhaps the full “drill-down” functionality of PeopleBrowsr’s data analytics tools. For example, I can drill down to the number of tweets per month that reference the word “tsunami” and drill down further per week and per day.

Moreover, I can sort through the individual tweets themselves based on specific filters and even access the underlying tweets complete with twitter handles, time-stamps, Kred scores, etc.

This latter feature would make it possible for the SBTF to copy & paste and map individual tweets on a live crisis map. In fact, the underlying data can be downloaded into a CSV file and added to a Google Spreadsheet for Mapsters to curate. Hopefully the Ushahidi team will also provide an option to upload CSVs to SwiftRiver so users can curate/filter pre-existing datasets as well as content generated live. What if you don’t have time to get on PeopleBrowsr and filter, download, etc? As part of their customer support, PeopleBrowsr will simply provide the data to you directly.

So what’s next? Marc and I are taking the following steps: Schedule online demo of PeopleBrowsr of the SBTF Core Team (they are for now the only members of the Digital Humanitarian Network with a dedicated and experienced Media Monitoring Team); SBTF pilots PeopleBrowsr for preparedness purposes; SBTF deploys  PeopleBrowsr during 2-3 official activations of the Digital Humanitarian Network; SBTF analyzes the added value of PeopleBrowsr for humanitarian response and provides expert feedback to PeopleBrowsr on how to improve the tool for humanitarian response.