Tag Archives: Election

Automatically Classifying Crowdsourced Election Reports

As part of QCRI’s Artificial Intelligence for Monitoring Elections (AIME) project, I liaised with Kaggle to work with a top notch Data Scientist to carry out a proof of concept study. As I’ve blogged in the past, crowdsourced election monitoring projects are starting to generate “Big Data” which cannot be managed or analyzed manually in real-time. Using the crowdsourced election reporting data recently collected by Uchaguzi during Kenya’s elections, we therefore set out to assess whether one could use machine learning to automatically tag user-generated reports according to topic, such as election-violence. The purpose of this post is to share the preliminary results from this innovative study, which we believe is the first of it’s kind.


The aim of this initial proof-of-concept study was to create a model to classify short messages (crowdsourced election reports) into several predetermined categories. The classification models were developed by applying a machine learning technique called gradient boosting on word features extracted from the text of the election reports along with their titles. Unigrams, bigrams and the number of words in the text and title were considered in the model development. The tf-idf weighting function was used following internal validation of the model.

The results depicted above confirm that classifiers can be developed to automatically classify short election observation reports crowdsourced from the public. The classification was generated by 10-fold cross validation. Our classifier is able to correctly predict whether a report is related to violence with an accuracy of 91%, for example. We can also accurately predict  89% of reports that relate to “Voter Issues” such as registration issues and reports that indicate positive events, “Fine” (86%).

The plan for this Summer and Fall is to replicate this work for other crowdsourced election datasets from Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Uganda. We hope the insights gained from this additional research will reveal which classifiers and/or “super classifiers” are portable across certain countries and election types. Our hypothesis, based on related crisis computing research, is that classifiers for certain types of events will be highly portable. However, we also hypothesize that the application of most classifiers across countries will result in lower accuracy scores. To this end, our Artificial Intelligence for Monitoring Elections platform will allow election monitoring organizations (end users) to create their own classifiers on the fly and thus meet their own information needs.


Big thanks to Nao for his excellent work on this predictive modeling project.

Artificial Intelligence for Monitoring Elections (AIME)

Citizen-based, crowdsourced election observation initiatives are on the rise. Leading election monitoring organizations are also looking to leverage citizen-based reporting to complement their own professional election monitoring efforts. Meanwhile, the information revolution continues apace, with the number of new mobile phone subscriptions up by over 1 billion in just the past 36 months alone. The volume of election-related reports generated by “the crowd” is thus expected to grow significantly in the coming years. But international, national and local election monitoring organizations are completely unprepared to deal with the rise of Big (Election) Data.


The purpose of this collaborative research project, AIME, is to develop a free and open source platform to automatically filter relevant election reports from the crowd. The platform will include pre-defined classifiers (e.g., security incidents,  intimidation, vote-buying, ballot stuffing etc.) for specific countries and will also allow end-users to create their own classifiers on the fly. The project, launched by QCRI and several key partners, will specifically focus on unstructured user-generated content from SMS and Twitter. AIME partners include a major international election monitoring organization and several academic research centers. The AIME platform will use the technology being developed for QCRI’s AIDR project: Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response.


  • Acknowledgements Fredrik Sjoberg kindly provided the Uchaguzi data which he scraped from the public website at the time.
  • Qualification: Professor Michael Best has rightly noted that these preliminary results are overstated given that the machine learning analysis was carried out on corpus of pre-structured reports.