Tag Archives: Sharing

Tweets, Crises and Behavioral Psychology: On Credibility and Information Sharing

How we feel about the content we read on Twitter influences whether we accept and share it—particularly during disasters. My colleague Yasuaki Sakamoto at the Stevens Institute of Technology (SIT) and his PhD students analyzed this dyna-mic more closely in this recent study entitled “Perspective Matters: Sharing of Crisis Information in Social Media”. Using a series behavioral psychology experiments, they examined “how individuals share information related to the 9.0 magnitude earthquake, which hit northeastern Japan on March 11th, 2011.” Their results indicate that individuals were more likely to share crisis infor-mation (1) when they imagined that they were close to the disaster center, (2) when they were thinking about themselves, and (3) when they experienced negative emotions as a result of reading the information.

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Yasu and team are particularly interested in “the effects of perspective taking – considering self or other – and location on individuals’ intention to pass on information in a Twitter-like environment.” In other words: does empathy influence information sharing (retweeting) during crises? Does thinking of others in need eliminate the individual differences in perception that arise when thinking of one’s self instead? The authors hypothesize that “individuals’ information sharing decision can be influenced by (1) their imagined proximity, being close to or distant from the disaster center, (2) the perspective that they take, thinking about self or other, and (3) how they feel about the information that they are exposed to in social media, positive, negative or neutral.”

To test these hypotheses, Yasu and company collected one year’s worth of tweets posted by two major news agencies and five individuals following the Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2012. They randomly sampled 100 media tweets and 100 tweets produced by individuals, resulting a combined sample of 200 tweets. Sampling from these two sources (media vs user-generated) enables Yasu and team to test whether people treat the resulting content differently. Next, they recruited 468 volunteers from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk and paid them a nominal fee for their participation in a series of three behavioral psychology experiments.

In the first experiment, the “control” condition, volunteers read through the list of tweets and simply rated the likelihood of sharing a given tweet. The second experiment asked volunteers to read through the list and imagine they were in Fukushima. They were then asked to document their feelings and rate whether they would pass along a given message. Experiment three introduced a hypo-thetical person John based in Fukushima and prompted users to describe how each tweet might make John feel and rate whether they would share the tweet.

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The results of these experiments suggest that, “people are more likely to spread crisis information when they think about themselves in the disaster situation. During disasters, then, one recommendation we can give to citizens would be to think about others instead of self, and think about others who are not in the disaster center. Doing so might allow citizens to perceive the information in a different way, and reduce the likelihood of impulsively spreading any seemingly useful but false information.” Yasu and his students also found that “people are more likely to share information associated with negative feelings.” Since rumors tend to evoke negativity,” they spread more quickly. The authors entertain possible ways to manage this problem such as “surrounding negative messages with positive ones,” for example.

In conclusion, Yasu and his students consider the design principles that ought to be considered when designing social media systems to verify and counter rumors. “In practice, designers need to devote significant efforts to understanding the effects of perspective taking and location, as shown in the current work, and develop techniques to mitigate negative influences of unproved information in social media.”

Bio

For more on Yasu’s work, see:

  • Using Crowdsourcing to Counter False Rumos on Social Media During Crises [Link]

UN Sudan Information Management Working (Group)

I’m back in the Sudan to continue my work with the UNDP’s Threat and Risk Mapping Analysis (TRMA) project. UN agencies typically suffer from what a colleague calls “Data Hugging Disorder (DHD),” i.e., they rarely share data. This is generally the rule, not the exception.

UN Exception

There is an exception, however: the recently established UN’s Information Management Working Group (IMWG) in the Sudan. The general goal of the IMWG is to “facilitate the development of a coherent information management approach for the UN Agencies and INGOs in Sudan in close cooperation with local authorities and institutions.”

More specifically, the IMWG seeks to:

  1. Support and advise the UNDAF Technical Working Groups and Work Plan sectors in the accessing and utilization of available data for improved development planning and programming;
  2. Develop/advise on the development of, a Sudan-specific tool, or set of tools, to support decentralized information-sharing and common GIS mapping, in such a way that it will be consistent with the DevInfo system development, and can eventually be adopted/integrated as a standard plug-in for the same.

To accomplish these goals, the IMWG will collectively assume a number of responsibilities including the following:

  • Agree on  information sharing protocols, including modalities of shared information update;
  • Review current information management mechanisms to have a coherent approach.

The core members of the working group include: IOM, WHO, FAO, UNICEF, UNHCR, UNPFA, WFP, OCHA and UNDP.

Information Sharing Protocol

These members recently signed and endorsed an “Information Sharing Protocol”. The protocol sets out the preconditions, the responsibilities and the rights of the IMWG members for sharing, updating and accessing the data of the information providers.

With this protocol, each member commits to sharing specific datasets, in specific formats and at specific intervals. The data provided is classified as either public access or classified accessed. The latter is further disaggregated into three categories:

  1. UN partners only;
  2. IMWG members only;
  3. [Agency/group] only.

There is also a restricted access category, which is granted on a case-by-case basis only.

UNDP/TRMA’s Role

UNDP’s role (via TRMA) in the IMWG is to technically support the administration of the information-sharing between IMWG members. More specifically, UNDP will provide ongoing technical support for the development and upgrading of the IMWG database tool in accoardance with the needs of the Working Group.

In addition, UNDP’s role is to receive data updates, to update the IMWG tool and to circulate data according to classification of access as determined by individual contributing agencies. Would a more seemless information sharing approach might work; one in which UNDP does not have to be the repository of the data let alone manually update the information?

In any case, the very existence of a UN Information Management Working Group in the Sudan suggests that Data Hugging Disorders (DHDs) can be cured.

Patrick Philippe Meier